18/04/2019
Touches of Renaissance: Studying Renaissance Architecture in its Authentic Place


EACH WORKSHOP IS MADE UP BY 3 DIFFERENT PHASES:

1) BEFORE the workshop: each group of university students from a different country must prepare a preliminary work, to be presented in Florence.

2) DURING the workshop there will be formed different international mixed groups of students; each international group will present a final work at the end of the week.

3) AFTER the workshop: once coming back home, each national group of university students will prepare a final version of the project.


Project phase: BEFORE


PROJECT LEADER:
Prof. Bohumil Fanta, Professor at the Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture, Czech Republic

PROJECT LEADER E-MAIL:
fantaboh@fa.cvut.cz






Slovak Technical University, Faculty of Architecture

PARTECIPANTS:
Ing. arch. Nadežda Hrašková, PhD., Michaela Kesanová, Adriana Slabejová, Jozef Veselovský, Radovan Zelik


Slovak Technical University, Faculty of Architecture BEFORE THE WORKSHOP

Architecture as a reflection of human spirit develops itself through the time. From its early beginning until today the process is still about accommodating human scale needs. As from the physical, also from the philosophical point of view people are trying to find the ideal solution for their surrounding. This activity is clearly visible on ancient architectural styles. The architects recognized and valuate human scale and tried to introduce it fully into the design of their buildings, into their architecture. Architecture never stands alone, but its existence is strictly tight with other aspects of human activities, such as philosophy, mathematics, all kinds of arts, etc. It is well known that history always process on the spiral, so once the old system is abandoned and "forgotten" the history will find the way to reveal it also for different society in different context. This is exactly what happened in 14th century. Revelation of human aspect was again introduced into the society as it was founded in 5th century BC in antique Greece. Classical architectural styles based on relationship between gods and human, dealing with geometry, mathematics and so on. Other different sciences tried to offer, or reintroduce this old values to the society which was looking more for humanity then ever before. Old relationship of dedication to gods was replace by considering human as the idol of society. Human mind and body were rose up. Humanism and renaissance established architectural style as a contrast from the following architecture - baroque. It tries to define exact form of human rational thinking combined with revealed artistic decorative styles. As it is shown on several examples below this period was of course dealing with much more than this. Different aspects influenced the final figure of architectural form. But the only common think stayed still. its the dedication for Human being as it self. Bratislavský hrad This majestic castle stands on a rocky outcrop which forms part of the Malé Karpaty mountains above the Danube river and is an outstanding feature of the capital Bratislava. The massive rectangular building with four corner towers stands in a strategic place which was inhibited during Celtic times and in the time of Greater Moravia. In the 9th century there was a palace and a basilica in the place of the present castle. The architecture of the castle is characterized by the reconstructions and extensions made during the Gothic and Renaissance period as well as during the rule of Maria Theresia. In the middle of the 16th century, Bratislava became the coronation city of Greater Hungary for 200 years and the castle became the king's residence. The sessions of the Hungarian Parlament took place there and the coronation jewels of the Hungarians kings were deposited in the coronation tower. After moving the royal court to Vienna the castle became a General Seminary, i.e. an educational institution, where many outstanding scholars of that time studied. Later the castle was used by the army and it burned down in 1811. Its reconstruction took place in the sixties of this century. It now houses exhibitions from the Slovak National Museum (Historical Museum and Music Museum), as well as the reception rooms of the president and parlament of the Slovak republic. The Bratislava Castle is the National cultural monument. Hrad Devín Its ground plan is very irregular. Today we enter the castle through the western Moravian Gate. The southern gate protected by a pair of semicircular bastions was built in the 15th century on an older Great Moravian rampart. Close behind the gate and on the right side of the path is a precious archaeological monument from the Roman period of Devíns history. The ground plan of the remains of a bulky stone building from the 4th century suggests a Classical tomb. The path divides into two on the ridge of the castle hill. The left branch leads to the place where a Great Moravian church stood in the 9th century. The first branch of the path leads to the conserved ruins of the middle and upper parts of the medieval castle. In the first half of the 15th century the Gothic Garay palace with two stories was built and the Renaissance palace and fortifications were added in the 16th century. Some vaulted spaces of this palace are today used for exhibitions of the Bratislava City Museum. The 55 metres deep castle well is on the courtyard of the middle castle. Near the well is also a terrace with view of the abandoned amphitheatre, the Danube and the mountain Braunsberg in Austria. In the wonderful setting above the bicolour confluence of the Danube and Morava, an elegant tower with battlements stands out. It is the Virgin tower. A bridge over a moat and stairs lead to the top platform with remnants of a guard tower from the 13th century rebuilt in the 15th century with panoramic view of the surroundings. Komárno The entire modern fortification system of Komárno represents a significant monument with well preserved construction elements of historical fortification buildings in Slovakia. The strategic importance of this location was appreciated by the Romans, who built a defensive system – Limes Romanus - along the Danube. This place became the site of an ancient settlement or castle, whose character changed with the rule of its masters. The fortification of Komárno consists of three parts: the Old Fortification, finished in the 16th century, the New Fortification from the period of 1663-1673, and the third part, the Palatinial Line – the fortified system of bastions and walls around the entire town. This defensive jewel of architecture was built during the Napoleonic wars and today offers visitors a walk through the centuries of the successes and downfalls of its rulers. King Béla IV, in his charter of April 1, 1265, granted the settlement town status and privileges. These privileges contributed to the development of medieval Komárno, helping it establish a flourishing trade market and craft industry. Medieval Komárno prospered, especially under the reign of Mathias Corvinus. He built a renaissance palace within the castle complex and frequented it for rest and pleasure. Mathias Corvinus also established the royal Danube flotilla, which used Komárno as its main base during the Ottoman wars. In the 16th century Komárno became one of centers of defense for the Habsburg Empire against the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. During the middle of the 16th century, under the reign of Ferdinand I, the medieval castle was rebuilt into a well-defensible fortification. However, it was occupied by Ottomans between 1594-1599. The rebuilt fortification became known as the Old Fortress when in the 17th century it was enlarged and expanded to form the New Fortress. Both the Old and New Fortresses successfully resisted the attacks of the Turkish army during the course of the Turkish wars. In the 18th century, after the end of the Turkish wars and expulsion of the Turks from the region, Komárno, one of the biggest towns in the country, again began to flourish. Maria Theresa's charter of the March 16, 1745 granted Komárno the status and privilege of a free royal town. Komárno was soon influenced by the Baroque styles that represented and characterized the Habsburg Empire and its territories. The local nobles and burgers built palaces and the newly arrived Trinitarians, Franciscans and Jesuits built churches. Zvolen Castle Zvolenský zámok is a medieval castle located on a hill near the center of Zvolen, in central Slovakia.The original seat of the region was above the confluence of Slatina and Hron rivers on a steep cliff in a castle from the 12th century, known today as Pustý hrad (meaning "Deserted castle"). Its difficult access had consequence in relocation of the seat to the new-built Zvolen castle. Zvolen castle was built by Louis I. from Anjou, which built it like a gothic hunting castle. In his form was finished in 1382, when it was a witness of an engagement of his daughter Mary and Sigmund Luxemburger. When we talk about a history of this castle, we cannot forget on John Jiskra from Brandýs, who became one of the most powerful commander in Hungary and this castle was one of his manors from 1440 to 1462. The castle was also often visited by a king Mathew with his wife Beatrice, who used this castle as a manor from 1490. About 1500 was built up external fortification with four round bastions and entrance gate. In half of 16th century was built up another floor with embrasures and corner oriel towers. About 1590 was built up artillery bastion also. The castle was rebuilt many times, but it retains its Renaissance look The castle was nominated as a National culture monument for his historic, art and architecture values and it was reconstructed in 60th years of 20th century. The Slovak National Gallery has a seat in this castle now, where it presents its expositions. Strážky The manor house Strážky was built on foundations of Gothic castle allegedly constructed on ruins of Knights Templar monastery. It is one of the oldest in Slovakia. Owners of the Gothic castle, the noble family Horváth-Stansith of Croatia, gradually rebuilt it into a Renaissance manor. In 1588, Gregor Horváth-Stansith established a humanistic school in this family residence and continued in reconstruction of the manor in the years 1618 to 1628. It was then that the manor acquired the appearance, as we know it now. The original three-winged building was completed after fire in 1708 following a typical square-shaped ground plan with a square inner courtyard. Baron Eduard Mednyánszky moved to the manor in 1862. He brought there his 10-year son Ladislav, who became a painter of the European significance. This artist painted several captivating landscapes with original social components during his stays in the family manor at the foothills of the Tatras. Premonštrátske prepoštstvo v Bzovíku Bzovik is a Gothic-Renaisance fortress against Turks and it is former monastery of Premonstrans. Its beginnings date back to before 1135. It was founded by Lampert from family Hunt-Poznanyi together with son Nikolas and wife Zofia, sister of Hungarian King Ladislav. The monastery church was built in the first half of the 12th century, despite its mention for the first time in written records in 1285. During the fights between the followers of Polish Ladislav Jagelovský and Hungarian Elizabeth, local area was devastated by the soldiers of Jiskra that were stationed in near by Krupina. During this time the monastery was rebuilt in Gothic Style. They added a chapel to the old Romanesque single nave church with two towers in 1444-1446. They also built a new monastery wing and garden of paradise. The monastery was burned down in 1471 by people from Krupina. In 1530 Zigmund Balassa attacked the monastery, he evicted the monks and rebuilt the monastery on grandiose scale to anti Turkish fortress. The whole former monastery was surrounded by high-fortified wall and four corner bastions. There was a moat surrounding the fortress. Banskoštiavnický Starý zámok (The Old Castle) Banská Štiavnica is an old-time mining town situated in the heart of the Štiavnické hills. The Old Castle is a former Roman church built at the beginning of the 13th century and in the half of the 16th century integrated into a fortification system of town Banská Štiavnica and then rebuilt into a fortress against the Turks in the Rennaissance. The last important architectural modification was the rebuilding of castle´s tower into the Baroque. In the rooms of the Castle there is an exposition of the Slovak mining museum. Originally parish church from the first half of the 13th century. In 1546-1559 it was rebuilt in Renaissance style into anti-Turkish fortress. In present time it is under the management of Slovak Mining Museum. Červený Kameň Červený Kameň Castle (Slovak: Hrad Červený Kameň) is a castle in southwestern Slovakia in the Little Carpathians near the village of Častá. A stone castle was built in the 13th century as part of the chain of frontier castles from Bratislava to Žilina. This castle was completely rebuilt as a fortress in the first half of the 16th century. When the Pálffys acquired the castle in 1588, the fortress was completed, and it became a representative noble castle. Although the castle was damaged several times by fire, it was always reconstructed by Pálffys, who were owners of the castle until the Second World War. Today, the castle is a museum. Banská Bystrica The castle was a part of the former fortification of the city of Banská Bystrica. In the castle there is a church from the 13th century. The fortification was built in 1480-1510 and it was later rebuilt in a Baroque style. There is the Gallery of Central Slovakia and the Regional Ethnographic Museum.



Images of the WORK
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Czech Technical University Prague, Faculty of Architecture
Prof. Bohumil Fanta, Doc. Eva Fantová, Klára Brůhová, Anna Beránková, Jakub Vysoký, Michal Bednář
Before - After

Slovak Technical University, Faculty of Architecture
Ing. arch. Nadežda Hrašková, PhD., Michaela Kesanová, Adriana Slabejová, Jozef Veselovský, Radovan Zelik
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Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture
Prof. Robert M. Kunkel, Urszula Koziarska, Mateusz Potempski, Maja Wieczorek, Leszek Włochyński
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Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Arrchitecture. Prof. Nadiya Yeksaryova. Student: Dmytro Mironov, Kseniya Gerasymova, Olga Polonska, Oleksandra Tymofyeyeva,.
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