i. Anastasia Kostareva – "The Connections between Byzantine and Renaissance Art"
ii. Irina Reshetilo – "The Phenomenon of Love"
iii. Anastasia Schukina – "Fresco Painting Techniques"
iv. Maxim Karpenko – "Analysis of the Florentine Last Supper Images from the Viewpoint of Modern Psychology"
v. Tatiana Sergienko – "The Symbolic Meaning of the Tablecloth in the Fresco of San Marco"
vi. Oksana Morkovskaya – "The Symbolic Meaning of Birds Present in the Fresco of San Marco"
i. "The Connections between Byzantine and Renaissance Art"
I want to tell you about my observation which I did in Florence museum. When I visited it I saw that icons have something universal with our icons and when I learned more about it understood that all these icons have universal origins with the Byzantine Art. And I will show it later. First of all I want to say a few words about peculiarities of the Byzantine iconography. The first peculiarity is that it is relatively static. Secondly these icons are not usual pictures – they open the window into a completely different world for us. The next peculiarity is the golden background. Fourthly all fugues are drown with out shadows. And the last peculiarity is the presens of Greek inscriptions or names which we can see in every icon. All of these peculiarities we can see also in Italian medieval icons. For example, the mosaic on the iner surface of the dome of the Baptistery, which show us different events from the Bible.
Also we can see this traditions in Russian icons. In the presentation you can see that our iconographies use golden background, Greek inscriptions and other Byzantine peculiarities of art.
And in conclusion of my presentation I want to say that the Byzantine traditions enter many different cultures and continue to live in them.
ii. "The Phenomenon of Love. Short sketch".
Florence fulls of love. When I wrote the paper ‘The Meal of Love’ (about ‘Last Supper’ in Renaissance) I understood that I should write about love. I tried to understand ‘Why’.
When I came to Italy I saw that Italian air is radiating with love. Love is everywhere as is Beauty.
Yesterday I saw Sandro Botichelly. I couldn’t believe my eyes. They were full of tears because I saw the phenomenon of Beauty.
Recently I understand that the Beauty tries to be manifested in Chenacole also. I discovered that it’s the other Beauty than in Russian icons which also have transcendental contest. For example Perugino’s paintings are so vibrant. The Beauty comes to us despite the fact of contest of his work. The Beauty comes from the colors first of all.
Due to Italian experience I’ve highlighted two main Renascence colors: NAVY BLUE and SATURATED PINK. For me there are the colors of Beauty and the colors of Florence. These colors are everywhere as the Beauty and Love in Florence.
iii. "Fresco Painting Techniques"
Molte delle chiese e cenacoli di Firenze sono decorate con meravigliosi affreschi, molto spesso vengono osservati ma non ci chiediamo mai come questi vengano realizzati. Opere come il cenacolo di S. Salvi, proprio per la loro ricchezza di dettagli, hanno richiesto tempi di lavorazione molto lunghi e una moltitudine di materiali e passaggi.
La sinopia è la fase dell'affresco consistente nel disegnare con della terra rossa (in origine proveniente da Sinope, sul Mar Nero) un abbozzo preparatorio per l'affresco eseguito subito dopo l'arriccio.
Una volta completata questa fase, il disegno viene progressivamente ricoperto con l'ultimo strato di intonaco.
Esistono altre tecniche di affresco tra le quali lo spolvero.
Per questa particolare metodologia si ha bisogno di un foglio di carta, sul quale, disegnate le sagome, queste verranno ripassate tramite piccoli fori praticati con un ago.
In seguito,creato un tampone con un panno e postovi all’ interno della polvere di carbone, sul muro rimarrà impresso un tracciato dell’ immagine che noi vogliamo riprodurre.
Un altro metodo molto utile per realizzare un affresco è quello del Cartone. Infatti, disegnato il soggetto su un foglio di carta, si appoggia quest’ultimo sulla parete e tramite una punta metallica tracciamo i contorni in modo che rimangano impressi, tramite piccole incisioni, sull' intonaco ancora fresco.
Disegnata l’immagine su un foglio quadrettato (anche di piccole dimensioni) possiamo trasportarlo sulla parete, opportunamente quadrettata, anche se l’immagine risulta di dimensioni differenti. In questo modo anche se variano le dimensioni dell’immagine, le sue proporzioni rimangono inalterate.
iv. "Analysis of the Florentine Last Supper Images
from the Viewpoint of Modern Psychology".
I would like to take a little bit different approach to the interpretation of the florentine Last Supper images, which dawned on me while observing Ghirlandaio's cenacolo in San Marco. What occurred to me when looking at it was that it is extremely realistic and thus we may differentiate between facial expressions of the people depicted. This radiance of emotions conveyed by the skill of a great Renaissance artist reminded me of the thorough studies of the manifestation of human emotions carried out by such prominent psychologists and experts on human nature, as Dr Paul Ekman, Joe Navarro and Allan Pease.
The first thing that struck me as highly unusual was the difference between the representations of Judas by various artists. My attention was caught by Judas' non-verbal behaviour in different frescos. Let's compare his body language in two frescos which occur to me as diametrically opposite to each other in this sense. In the fresco at the museum of San Marco Judas demonstrates an expression close to shame, which is not visible in other cenacoli, for example in Fuligno. Now I would like to enumerate the common signs of shame for which I invite you to look in the frescos:
- Evasion of direct eye contact. The person ashamed usually directs his gaze downwards or to the side. The reason for this is not yet clear, but the dominating theory suggests that eye contact served as a manifestation of domination and self-confidence.
- Defensive gestures. By defensive gestures we mean attempts to cover one's body by crossing arms or legs. This is an anachronism left from the process of human development. Humans subconsciously react to any - both physical and mental - discomfort by giving vital intestines extra protection.
- Overtion of the corpus. When a person has an unpleasant feeling, he or she quite naturally wants to end it as soon as possible. This desire is usually visible by the fact that the person actually directs his corpus away, as if he is ready to flee.
Let's try to apply these guidelines to the depiction of Judas. In the cenacolo of San Marco we can see that Judas makes eye contact with nobody at all - he looks above Christ, presumably out of the window. We can clearly see his right arm that covers his chest in a defensive gesture. His left hand is not visible, but we may assume from the folded elbow that its position is similar to that of the right hand. As to his feet, we can see that they are directed away from the table, as if he is ready to stand up and leave any moment. Considering the before mentioned information, I would classify this emotional state as shame. Now let's examine the image of Judas that is completely different to my perception - the cenacolo of Fuligno by Perugino. Here Judas makes eye contact with the viewer. His arms are relaxed and make no defensive gestures - the left rests of his knee, holding a wallet with money for his treason, and his right hand lies on the table. His legs are turned away from the table, which might be accounted to the desire to leave. Here his emotional state may be classified as self-confidence.
This was only a brief overview of my idea. The theme discussed hasn't been studied before, as far as I know. I am planning to develop it further when I get back home, for there is much left to develop - for example the enraged and disapproving expressions of the apostles, Saint Peter's clenched fist and other psychological details, every one of which might be subject to analysis.
Images of the WORK: